The Islamic Golden Age ( 8th century to 1258 ) was a period of intense learning and discovery for the Muslim world.
Philosophy from China, science - especially experimenting, math, physics, biology, medicine, health care - free medical for all, hospitals - the first licensed doctors, commerce, travel - bigger boats and navigating instruments, culture - the arts, calligraphy, and education. The biggest mosques were built. The rise of Islam was instrumental in uniting the fighting Arabs into one powerful empire. The empire had a keen interest in all the scientific knowledge of every tribe it conquered.
Paper made from linen absorbed ink making it hard to erase, a technology from China was a major player in writing books. Scholars from every genre were hired to record, translate, transcribe, teach and were paid well for doing it. Salaries were estimated to be the equivalent of a high paid athlete today.
The Fatimids ruled during this period of abundance. They gave the people the freedom to believe whatever they wanted as long as it didn't affect his neighbour.
The invasion of the Mongols during the crusades brought it all to an end, beginning at the end of the 11th century and into the 12th.